Comparing Cost vs Value: Best Endurance Supplements

Value of Proxima C endurance Fuel

Cost vs Value: Best Endurance Supplements

Let’s talk about price.

We have heard several concerns about our products being a little pricey. Our response? They are.

Compared to the average endurance product on the market, Ultraverse Supplements prices are near the highest end. If you are looking at price alone, that might turn you off from our products. We totally understand.

However, I strongly encourage (even plead) you to look beyond price and consider something much more important when choosing an endurance supplement – value.

Price is just price.

Price holds no bearing as to the quality of an endurance supplement, or any supplement. Value, by definition, is the importance, worth, or usefulness of a product. Now, just because a supplement has a higher price tag doesn’t necessarily mean it’s better or useful at all, for that matter.

This is why it’s essential to be an educated consumer. I get it; it’s a lot to know, and who the hell has time to learn all this crap? That’s an understandable argument, but you don’t have to have a degree in nutrition to understand some basic things to look out for in the supplement industry.

Much of what you need to know should be transparent and easily accessible on the supplement company’s website. The purpose of this blog is to convince you to look past the price and determine the value of supplements based on various factors, including your particular circumstances.

I’m going to highlight, compare, and expose (for lack of a better word) numerous popular endurance supplements from some of the largest and most profitable manufacturers on the planet. Now, I’m not going to NAME the supplements or the manufacturers. I’m not in the business of “calling out” competition. I’m simply trying to make you a more informed consumer and hopefully convince you that our value at Ultraverse Supplements is unparalleled in the endurance supplement industry.


There’s a harsh truth to the supplement world.  Most supplements suck.  Endurance supplements are no exception.  Most companies care more about their bottom dollar than about the supplements they produce actually benefiting their customers.

Additionally, a very high percentage of supplements are not made by people who have any idea what they are doing.  There are no minimum requirements for starting a supplement brand.  Anyone can do it.  Many will simply tell a contract manufacturer what kind of supplement they want to create (joint supplement, protein powder, endurance formula, etc.) and allow the manufacturer to essentially create the supplement for them.

A manufacturer is naturally going to create a supplement made with the cheapest forms of each ingredient.   Additionally, they will usually dose that supplement with cost and the current trends of competitor formulas in mind, rather than effectiveness.

Supplements are consistently being made with “hype” ingredients that don’t have evidence to back their effectiveness.  The VAST MAJORITY of supplements are under-dosed, are not directed to be used appropriately (as far as frequency is concerned), and are made with the cheapest ingredients possible rather than the most effective.

In the following sections, we will dive into the various factors that influence the value of a supplement.  Additionally, we are going to show you why almost every endurance supplement company is missing the mark.

Evidence-based or Hypevalue

The first question you want to ask when looking at endurance supplements is, “are the ingredients in the product backed by a body of scientific evidence justifying their use?”

If not, then why would you spend money on them? There are a lot of supplements out there that contain ingredients that are entirely hype and have little scientific backing. At Ultraverse Supplements, we include only ingredients that we interpret through the scientific literature to be beneficial. At the bottom of each product page, you will find a long list of scientific articles, all of which we have read in their entirety.

To justify a particular ingredient, we look for multiple high-quality studies indicating that a specific ingredient would be beneficial, safe, and valuable for our target audience – endurance athletes.

Real SCIENCE is how we justify our ingredients, quantities, and the safety of our products.

No hype.


Vitamins C and E –  There’s a lot of “hype” ingredients out there that just don’t work. But even worse is when an ingredient is included in a formula touting benefits that ACTUALLY harms or impairs performance. Vitamin C and E are potent antioxidants ubiquitous in endurance products – from fuels, recovery drinks, multivitamins, and pre-workouts. Often they are found in amounts far exceeding the RDA.

Often vitamin C and E are included with the promise of decreased inflammation and improved recovery.

Here’s the problem – the reduction in inflammation that high doses of these antioxidants provide is actually harmful to endurance in the long run because doing so actually impairs positive adaptation!

If you want more details on why you SHOULD NOT be buying endurance supplements with vitamin C and E, as well as studies to back up that claim, check out Vitamin C for Endurance Athletes: Help or Hindrance?.

Scientifically Appropriate Quantities

Even if a supplement contains scientifically-backed ingredients, unfortunately, that doesn’t mean those ingredients will be present in a scientifically appropriate quantities.  In fact, this is one of the reasons I decided to get into this business!

When I was going through my Clinical Nutrition master’s program, I was constantly applying all the knowledge I learned about nutrition and supplementation to endurance sports.

I have always taken supplements, but it wasn’t until I learned how to properly research and evaluate ingredients that I became an “informed” consumer.

I immediately discovered that the vast majority (and I’m talking almost ALL) of endurance supplements are under-dosed.  When I say under-dosed, I’m suggesting that no scientific literature implies that the amount in that particular supplement will result in ANY sort of benefit to endurance performance or recovery.  There are countless examples, but here are just a couple from one of the biggest names in the industry.

Example #1

Below is a supplement that claims to prevent fatigue during endurance exercise. The thing that jumps out immediately is L-citrulline. Yes, L-citrulline is beneficial for preventing fatigue and improving endurance performance. But here’s the problem.  A meta-analysis, suggests that L-citrulline needs to be taken in doses of at least 3-4 grams, OR 8 grams as citrulline malate (Rhim et al., 2020)! Another study recommends 6-8 grams of L-citrulline to improve endurance exercise performance (Bailey et al., 2015).

So WHY would a supplement company include 700 mg in an endurance formula? That is less than 25% of the LOWEST amount that I’ve seen to be effective in scientific literature. Compare that to T-30, which has 8 grams (8000 mg) of the superior form – Citrulline Malate…now THAT makes sense. Unfortunately, that’s not all that’s wrong with this endurance supplement.

The recommendation is to take the supplement before and during endurance exercise. Makes sense, right?  WRONG.

Citrulline is most effective when taken DAILY, not just on workout days (Bailey et al., 2015).

Results would be minimal even IF this were appropriately dosed. The frequency of use would still be insufficient for optimal results. Which is one of the reasons we include citrulline malate in T-30, our DAILY endurance supplement.

Let’s do another.


Here’s another real head-scratcher.  In this endurance supplement, beta-alanine (in a 500 mg dose) is recommended before workouts.  I’ve never seen a study to suggest beta-alanine is beneficial for performance in anything less than 2 grams/day.  And, once again, beta-alanine MUST be taken every day to see results.  So, with this endurance supplement, an endurance athlete would be getting (at best) 25% of the beta-alanine they need, IF they were taking it appropriately, which they wouldn’t be.  Big sigh and eye roll on this side of the CPU.

T-30 contains 3 grams of beta-alanine.

Please, don’t just take my word on this stuff.  Just do a google search on the appropriate dose.  Just make sure you are looking at RELIABLE resources.

Appropriate Ingredient Use and Frequency

Another nearly universal issue in the endurance supplement world – significant discrepancies in ingredient use and frequency compared to what the scientific literature indicates is beneficial. Numerous ingredients are ONLY effective when taken daily, and even more that are MOST effective when taken daily. Yet, these same supplements are constantly recommended by endurance supplement companies on workout days only. A good example is beta-alanine – one of the most scientifically studied ergogenic aids on the planet, proven effective for various performance-related attributes, and, unfortunately, almost universally misused. Beta-alanine has long been ubiquitous in pre-workouts and is now commonly found in energy drinks as well.

But, beta-alanine is not effective as a pre-workout or as a one-time energy boost! Yes, it’s the stuff that makes your skin tingle, but that tingling has no bearing on beta-alanine’s performance-enhancing abilities.

Studies CLEARLY show that beta-alanine should be taken DAILY for at least FOUR WEEKS to see optimal results (Trexler et al., 2015).

So if you’re taking a supplement, endurance or otherwise, that includes beta-alanine, and the bottle instructs you to take it only on workout days, you have to ask yourself, what the hell? This is just one example, guys. It is ridiculously common.

Another example is a popular endurance fuel that contains 280 mg of HMB/serving. HMB is an excellent supplement for endurance athletes, but it needs to be taken in doses of AT LEAST 1-3 grams DAILY for two weeks to see good results (Wilson et al., 2013). So you’d have to take a MINUMUM of 4 servings of this fuel every day to see optimal results, and 11-12 servings would be better. You don’t take endurance fuels every day! That would actually be quite detrimental for obvious reasons. HMB is much better incorporated into a DAILY supplement and quite frankly doesn’t even make sense otherwise.

T-30 has six different supplements that all NEED to be taken daily to see the optimal performance improvement. These include; BCAAs, citrulline malate, beta-alanine, HMB, KSM -66 ashwagandha, and Rhodiola rosea extract. And that’s not everything in T-30, by the way. For more information on T-30 and the SCIENCE behind it, check out T-30 – The KING of Endurance Supplements.

If you want to know how we justify ANY of those ingredients in an endurance supplement, please click on the ingredient.


Some forms of ingredients just work better than others.  Certain forms of vitamins and minerals are significantly more bioavailable than are others.  In fact, some of the cheaper varieties are damn near useless.  Certain herbal extracts (often trademarked and more expensive) are significantly more beneficial than their “standard” counterparts.

Admittedly, the endless variety of different ingredients is complicated and can be exhausting to keep straight.  I certainly wouldn’t expect a consumer to know which supplemental variety of each nutrient or herb is superior and inferior.   However, I would expect a supplement manufacturer to know the difference.

As I mentioned previously, most companies either don’t KNOW the differences or simply choose the cheaper varieties (almost always the inferior forms).  After all, they don’t expect that their customers will ever know any different anyway, right?  Whatever the excuse may be, rarely do you see a company using what science suggests to be the best supplemental forms of ingredients.

At Ultraverse Supplements, we use the form of each ingredient that we interpret through research to be the most beneficial.  We never use more expensive forms UNLESS we believe they are indeed more beneficial when compared to their more cost-friendly counterparts.  But as I have repeated time and time – our products are designed to be THE BEST POSSIBLE – cost be damned.

If there is a more effective variety of a vitamin, mineral, herb, or otherwise, we will use it, even if that means raising the price tag as a result.  That is, and always will be, a core value at Ultraverse Supplements.


Ingredient Form used in Terminus Typical Form Used by Competitors
Zinc Zinc Picolinate Zinc Sulfate or Zinc Oxide

Zinc picolinate is more bioavailable (and more expensive) than zinc sulfate or zinc oxide.

Additionally, zinc sulfate can react with calcium and cause GI issues.  Zinc oxide has shown to have poor bioavailability (Wegmüller et al., 2014).


Ingredient Form used in Terminus Typical Form Used by Competitors
Folate Folic Acid (5-MTHF) Folic Acid

Folic Acid is a terrible form of folate to supplement.  It is does not metabolize well in the body and as a result unmetabolized folic acid can build up in the bloodstream (Wright et al., 2007)  This build-up can actually HARM health.

Folic acid and Folate are NOT the same thing (Scaglione & Panzavolta, 2014).  Using folate in its methylated (5-MTHF) form, negates the above issues and provides a far superior and healthy way to supplement folate.  Folic acid is a cheap, synthetic, inferior, and potentially harmful, version of folate.

Folic Acid vs. Folate




Ingredient Form used in Terminus Typical Form Used by Competitors
Vitamin B6 pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (P5P) Pyridoxine hydrochloride

P5P is a more efficient version of vitamin B6. Pyridoxine must be converted to P5P upon ingestion, while P5P does not.

P5P is the active form of pyroxidine (B6) and has been shown to elevate P5P in the bloodstream nearly 60% more than pyridoxine hydrochloride.




Ingredient Form used in Terminus Typical Form Used by Competitors
Magnesium Magnesium Glycinate (AKA Magnesium bisglycinate) Magnesium Oxide

Magnesium glycinate is absorbed much better than the cheaper magnesium oxide.  Additionally, magnesium oxide is well known to cause a laxative side effect in many people.

Magnesium glycinate promotes relaxation and stress relief (exactly what you need to recovery optimally after a workout).


Utilizing the charts above, let’s compare the ingredients in Terminus to a LONG established and very well-known endurance recovery formula.  We will refer to this product as Product A.  Product A has the EXACT ingredients listed in the “typical forms used by competitors” column. In contrast, Terminus utilizes the superior ingredients indicated in the “Terminus” column.

Product A has 15 servings and is about $50.  Terminus has 20 servings and is about $65.  That makes the cost per serving negligible, about 8 cents cheaper per serving for Terminus.

But, what product is providing more VALUE?  Terminus uses the best ingredients. The other product uses cheap, inferior ingredients.

Ok, one more comparison.  Now this one is quite different.  This is also putting Terminus up against a very popular endurance recovery formula from a BIG name company in the endurance supplement world.  But this comparison is different in that there is no doubt that Terminus is more expensive (serving per serving) than the compared product.

KCAL/SERVING 270 kcal 240 kcal




Servings required for minimum glycogen replenishment @ .8g/kg

120 lbs (54.54 kg)

145 lbs (65.91 kg)

170 lbs (77.27 kg)

(Formulated for .8g/kg/serving)


.92 servings

1.12 servings

1.32 servings



1.27 servings

1.53 servings

1.80 servings


.8g/kg of CHO is the MINUMUM studies suggest ingesting following exhaustive endurance exercise to adequately replenish glycogen.

This row reflects the number of servings required to reach .8g/kg.  Since there is no individualized weight chart available for product X it encourages everyone to take the same amount.  As you can see, not even a 120 lb endurance athlete would be taking in sufficient quantities of CHO by taking the suggested serving.

The individualized serving size chart for Terminus can be found on the Terminus product page.  Labeling regulations prevent us from being able to include it on the bottle.

Servings customized for weight? YES.  Chart on website indicating how much to take based on weight.       WINNER NO.   LOSER

Because not everyone needs the same amount!  Studies suggest .8 – 1.2g of CHO/kg is optimal.  Too much and you may gain weight, too little and you don’t adequately replenish glycogen.  Weight determines the appropriate dose of all ingredients, not just CHO.

Naturally, as servings of Terminus increase based on weight, so does the consumed amount of all ingredients – as indicated in the ingredients below.

CARBS/SERVING – SOURCE 47g –dextrose      WINNER 43g – dextrose and sucrose  LOSER

Dextrose is the fastest absorbing sugar available.  This leads to rapid glycogen replenishment in the 30-minute window of opportunity.  Additionally, Terminus contains more total CHO/serving.

PROTEIN/SOURCE 15g – 70:30 Organic Pea/organic brown rice blend       WINNER 11g – Organic brown rice protein   LOSER

70:30 pea/brown rice blend creates an amino acid profile similar, if not superior, to whey.  This is NOT true when using rice protein alone.  Product X claims that it has added amino acids to make it complete, but shows no indication as to the quantity.

Terminus has more protein and a superior amino acid profile, which can be found on the Terminus product page.

CARB: PROTEIN RATIO BETWEEN 3:1 – 4:1? Yes.  3.1:1      EQUAL Yes. 3.9:1      EQUAL

Multiple studies show that a 3:1 – 4:1 CHO: protein ratio is optimal for post-workout glycogen replenishment and recovery.  Both products fall within this range.

Additional BCAAs/source? Yes. 4g @ 120 lbs, 6g @170 lbs. 2:1:1 ratio.  Sunflower sourced.



Yes.  Non-disclosed amount.  Unknown ratio.

Unknown source.



BCAAs (especially leucine) are essential for protein synthesis, muscle preservation, and optimal recovery and adaptation.  Studies show a ratio of 2:1:1 (leucine:isoleucine: valine) to be effective.

Non-vegan BCAAs are typically created from animal fur, feathers, and even human hair.  If the source isn’t disclosed you can typically assume that this is the case as it is the cheapest option.

With Terminus you know exactly what you are getting and how much.


B Vitamins are critical for immunity, efficient macronutrient metabolism (energy production), red blood cell synthesis, and muscle repair.

CARNITINE? YES. 1500 mg L-carnitine @ 120 lbs, 2250 mg @ 170 lbs.    WINNER NO    LOSER

L-carnitine repairs damaged muscles, increases fat oxidation, aids in the overall recovery process, and is crucial for energy metabolism and cardiovascular health.

Plant-based athletes are especially vulnerable to L-carnitine deficiency.



YES. 4g L-Glutamine @ 120 lbs, 6g @ 170 lbs     WINNER NO      LOSER

Glutamine levels decrease following exhaustive exercise.  Glutamine improves recovery, glycogen replenishment, boosts immunity, prevents overtraining, and has been shown to reduce exercise-induced intestinal permeability which may prevent GI distress commonly associated with prolonged endurance exercise.

In our opinions, a recovery formula cannot be optimal without glutamine.

ZINC?  FORM? YES. 6mg @ 120 lbs, 9mg @ 170 lbs.  Zinc picolinate.    WINNER NO     LOSER  

Endurance exercise depletes zinc.  Insufficient zinc leads to lower endurance capacity, impaired immune function, and crippled performance   Research has demonstrated increased absorbability with zinc picolinate.

As you can see, Terminus wins or ties in every single category except for cost/serving.  But look at everything you are getting with a serving of Terminus compared to Product X.  Interestingly enough, one of our Ambassadors used to take Product X. When he made the switch to Terminus, he was blown away by the difference.  If you look at the chart above, it’s really not that hard to see why.

So NOW the question you have to ask yourself is – is the additional cost worth it for you?  Which product presents more value?  Do you want to recover good(ish), or do you want to take the product that will help you recover better than any other endurance recovery formula on the market?

Good, Better, Best

Have you ever seen endurance supplement companies that offer a good, better, and best version of their supplements?  That drives me crazy!  Why the hell would I want to put something in my body that isn’t the best?  At Ultraverse Supplements, we are only interested in making THE BEST endurance supplements.  We have no standard and premium lines, ONLY TOP OF THE LINE.

Third-Party Testing

Supplements should be third-party tested for various things such as product and ingredient accuracy, mold, bacteria, residual pesticides, and heavy metals.

The 3rd party testing results should be easily accessible to the consumer.  If they’re not, you should ask yourself, why? At Ultraverse Supplements, we 3rd party test our products for all of the above tests. We are 100% committed to providing top-of-the-line endurance supplements that are safe for our target customers.  To learn more about 3rd party testing and why it’s crucial, check out the Third-Party Testing for Supplements: Everything You Need to Know.

Our results speak for themselves and are easily accessible on our home page and product pages.

3rd party testing is valuable in that it ensures what you are putting into your body conforms to certain health and safety standards.  Not only is the act of testing itself valuable, but the results are valuable as well!

Make sure they are available to you!

Price of Effective Dose and Price of Effective Supplement

When determining the value of a supplement, it makes more sense to compare the cost/effective dose of EACH ingredient rather than comparing cost alone.

Why don’t more companies make “all in one” supplements?  Well, because they can make a LOT more money by selling you 2,3, even 4 (or more) supplements.

Each of our supplements has a specific purpose and goal in mind for our customers.  In other words, they make sense to separate.  We don’t separate ingredients for the sole purpose of making (selling) more products.  Our goal is to combine as many beneficial (and safe) ingredients into one formula as possible.  Not only to simplify things for our customers, but to save our customers money, increase value, and, of course, create the most effective endurance supplements on the market.

To use our own products as an example – T-30 is a daily endurance supplement. The ingredients need to be taken DAILY to reap the full benefits.  Additionally, certain ingredients (like HMB and the BCAA’s) are helpful to take before a workout.  So there is a specific time and frequency to consider when creating such a supplement.  On the flip side, Terminus is a recovery formula that is best taken only after (and in some cases during) workouts.  You would NOT want to take Terminus on non-workout days.  As you can see, these supplements do not make sense to combine.

However, when you look at ALMOST ANY major endurance supplement company, you’ll find that supplements are rarely used effectively in combination.

For example, you’ll see ingredients like beta-alanine, HMB, citrulline malate, and BCAAs as totally separate supplements.

These are all scientifically backed ingredients, BUT as previously mentioned, to experience the full benefits of ANY of these ingredients, they must be taken daily.  So why not combine them?  Again, supplement companies want to charge you for each supplement separately.  This way, they make exponentially more than they would if you were to buy ONE supplement that contains a wide range of beneficial ingredients – like T-30 and Terminus.

Yes, T-30 costs about $70.  But try buying all those ingredients separately from the other guys and see what it costs you…

Ok, I’ll even do that too!

Now bear with me here; I went super-nerd on this. Once again, we are going to use T-30 as an example. I could do the same with Terminus, but the sheer number of ingredients would make things significantly more complicated.

So, here are some highlights from the chart seen below and the thought that went into it.

  • I have listed each of the active ingredients in T-30. The only things that aren’t listed are the flavoring ingredients (stevia extract, natural flavors, etc.).
  • I compensated for the gram for gram (or mg for mg) cost of each ingredient in my comparison.  In other words, I simply took the total amount of each ingredient that is contained in an entire bottle of T-30 and figured what the comparative product is charging for that exact same amount of the exact same ingredient. That way, everything is fair, and we are comparing the SAME ingredient in the SAME quantity.

For BCAA’s, citrulline malate, and beta-alanine, I used the same company (Company 1) that sells all three of these supplements separately (rather than combining them). For the rest of the ingredients, I went to Amazon and used the most popular product that utilized the SAME version in T-30 (since the initial company did not sell these ingredients in a comparative form).

Company 1

BCAAs $41.54 for 300 g
Citrulline malate $28.80 for 240 g
Beta-alanine $10.26 for 90 g

As you can see from the ingredients above, the three ingredients that this popular company sells separately would add up to $80.60 for the SAME amount that is in ONE bottle of T-30.  Remember, T-30 is $69.99/bottle at full price.  So even if we stopped with these THREE ingredients, T-30 is already a better deal!

But, as you know, T-30 does not contain just three ingredients.  So let’s keep going.

The below chart shows Amazon’s most popular product in the same form used in T-30 (obviously prices are constantly changing).

KSM-66 Ashwagandha $7.33 for 9 g
Rhodiola rosea extract (std. to 3% Rosavins, 1% Salidroside) $9.70 for 4.5 g
CDP Choline $4.66 for 6 g
Taurine $1.01 for 45 g
HMB (as calcium HMB) $6.10 for 90 g
NAC $8.17 for 6 g
Total from all ingredients $117.57

$117.57 is around what it would cost you to buy all the ingredients in T-30 separately from the other guys.  Still think it’s overpriced?

Loyalty Program

At Ultraverse Supplements, we like to give back to our loyal customers. That’s why whenever you buy from our website, you will receive 10% back on all purchases in the form of Ultra-rewards points.  These points can be used on any purchase and in combination with any coupon or sale.  These points NEVER expire.

Marketing Should Have No Influence on Value

A tough guy’s face or fancy marketing scheme has no influence on VALUE.  It should not influence a consumer’s decision to buy.

We get it. In a way, this article itself is marketing. We run ads; we do things to increase brand awareness.

This stuff HAS to be done to a certain extent for a supplement company to succeed. But what I’m suggesting to you, as an informed and educated consumer, is to look beyond the fancy marketing – the navy seal, the athlete, the podcast host, or otherwise famous person.

Those things are ultimately meaningless.

They just mean that those people are being paid to represent that product or that they make money on sales.

That person almost certainly had nothing to do with the product’s formulation, and let’s be honest, you don’t want them to. Being a great athlete, a celebrity, or a badass doesn’t make someone an authority on sports nutrition or endurance supplements. Additionally, the product came out AFTER they became famous. So common sense tells you the product itself had nothing to do with their rise to success in their particular discipline.  

Admittedly, we aren’t the best at marketing.  We are still new to that game.  We are a long shot from having the “coolest” website in the game. We don’t have any big-name superstars endorsing our products.  However, our products are the best.  Which of these things is most important to you?

Summary – Cost vs Value: Best Endurance Supplements

The purpose of this blog was not to bash other products or try to take down “the giants” in the industry.

They’re not going anywhere; Ultraverse Supplements is no threat to them and never will be to such companies. We knew from the beginning that our market was relatively small and that our supplements, due to cost, are not for everyone.

But, they are the best there is. Of that, we have no doubt.

I, as a serious ultra-runner, formulated these supplements with the goal of creating a small lineup of supplements with the best ingredients in optimal quantities and in such a way that they are taken exactly how they should be to safely produce the best results possible. Additionally, I wanted to do so with as few products as possible – each with its own specific purpose and benefits. I did this by combining the supplements other companies would sell separately to make additional profit.

I created my DREAM supplements and ignored manufacturers who said they would be too expensive to sell.

I only want to put the best supplements in my body because I don’t want to waste an ounce of my training effort. I know there are plenty of other endurance athletes out there who think the same way.

For the people who want the best endurance supplements at a fair price, an unbeatable value, and from a company that is small enough to listen and provide exceptional customer communication and service, Ultraverse Supplements has your back.



Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., Lord, T., Vanhatalo, A., Winyard, P. G., & Jones, A. M. (2015). L-Citrulline supplementation improves O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 119(4), 385–395.

Barrie, S. A., Wright, J. V., Pizzorno, J. E., Kutter, E., & Barron, P. C. (1987). Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans. Agents and Actions, 21(1–2), 223–228.

Rhim, H. C., Kim, S. J., Park, J., & Jang, K.-M. (2020). Effect of citrulline on post-exercise rating of perceived exertion, muscle soreness, and blood lactate levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9(6), 553–561.

Scaglione, F., & Panzavolta, G. (2014). Folate, folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate are not the same thing. Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems, 44(5), 480–488.

Wegmüller, R., Tay, F., Zeder, C., Brnic, M., & Hurrell, R. F. (2014). Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide. The Journal of Nutrition, 144(2), 132–136.

Wright, A. J. A., Dainty, J. R., & Finglas, P. M. (2007). Folic acid metabolism in human subjects revisited: Potential implications for proposed mandatory folic acid fortification in the UK. The British Journal of Nutrition, 98(4), 667–675.

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